L. O. Yashchenko, A. I. Shpeniovych

Forming Sample Population for Business Tendency Surveys in the EU and OECD Countries

In the process of sample formation some problems arise relating to the determination of units of population, variety of activities within the framework of one enterprise, formation of vertical and horizontal associations. Unfortunately, in different countries these problems are solved in different ways, various definitions are used that complicates formulation of general recommendations. At the same time, each country should have maximum clear information concerning an enterprise: its activity, legal form, size and location.

The purpose of the article is the analysis of experience in formation of sample population for business tendency surveys (hereafter - BTS) in the countries of European Union (hereafter - EU) and Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (hereafter - OECD).

Fundamental regulations on the formation of sample population of BTS are formulated in the EU Unified Harmonized Program on Business Tendency Survey and in the OECD Manual on Business Tendency Survey.

In practice in the EU countries about 125000 enterprises in industry, construction, retail trade and services are surveyed. The respondents’ participation in surveys is voluntary in the most countries. At the same time, it is compulsory in Spain, France, Italy, Luxemburg, Netherlands, Poland and Portugal.

According to the EU and OECD recommendations, sampling should be stratified by using simple random selection. The most countries use proportional allocation to determine the size of strata, though some of them, such as Italy and Great Britain, use Neyman allocation. Within the framework of coordinated system stratification of enterprises is carried out by region (in case of necessity), economic activity and size of an enterprise, which is estimated depending on the number of workers, or other indicators (for instance, some countries use the volume of sales, output or turnover of production). In the most cases they form a company’s permanent panel which is yearly updated. In sample rotation fixed percentage of observation units is changed on stable basis. Or rather, the large and the most important enterprises should not be rotated, and the smallest ones are gradually being changed. In some OECD member-countries the panel is being regularly updated and the relevant share is equal to 25%.

We have to point out that studying the EU and OECD member-countries’ experience in sampling formation is the basis for appropriate methodological and methodical development works for carrying out business tendency surveys in Ukraine.

Key words: sampling, stratification, the size of strata, sample size, Business Tendency Survey, proportional allocation, Neyman allocation, statistical register, business register.


I. A. Honchar, V. O. Babirad-Lazunin

Character of Forming External Trade of Ukraine: Statistical Estimation

In the past two decades sizeable economic changes occurred in Ukraine affecting its international economic activity and launching the country’s position in a dramatic drift over ranking in the world trade statistics. Therefore, important questions of traversed path analysis and identification of priority areas of development have arisen.

At the beginning of Ukraine’s independence its external trade statistics paid attention to the development of new methods of generating the knowledge base, but less attention was paid to the analysis of its activity. That situation was quite understandable, since the post-Soviet economy could not easily shift to new market mechanisms due to the slow reform progress. That’s why the country developed by inertia for a long time. That development also had a positive side, however domestic and global economic crisis finally pointed out the futility of such a path.

The aim of this paper is to determine the features of modern Ukraine's external trade and to reveal its role in the international trade area.

The results of the analysis have revealed that our country is losing its position in the U.S. market, but in the Russian Federation we have indisputable success. As for China, Belarus, Poland and Germany, Ukraine struggles for position in these markets. This dependence demonstrates a situation when some countries, such as the United States of America, with a high level of industry and economy do not need our products, meanwhile, on the other hand, the Russian Federation, is unable to buy products at higher prices. Therefore, not all the EU countries are satisfied with quality and price of our products.

The results of the analysis can state that national producers lose their positions in the markets of international partners by increasing imports instead of exporting goods of national production. Index Ci shows that import is growing faster than export, thereby reducing the competitive position of Ukraine in the markets of the more developed countries, such as the United States of America and Germany. As for the Russian Federation, we can see the opposite tendency – the ability to compete with their producers confidently.

Assessing the Ukraine’s position in the markets of major trading partners we can state that our country’s authority in the world trade area remains extremely low. Ukraine failed to enter the high-tech markets. As a result, it remains a raw materials appendix for rich countries. The structure of Ukraine’s external trade does not stimulate the economy to the innovation development. So, without immediate reforms in domestic policy and changes in external priorities Ukraine will not take up one of the leading positions in the world trade area.

Key words: external trade, export, import, balance level of external trade, competitive position of the state.


N. M. Samoliuk, G. M. Yurchyk

Manpower Value Formation in the Context of Conformity with Interests of Labor Market Entities

In conditions of transformation of state social policy manpower value becomes much more important monetary component of the socio-labor relations if compared with wages. The latter, unlike price of labor, reflects the total expenses of employers for maintenance of hired labor, and for employees – the total amount of goods gained as a result of work. For the state an excess of manpower value over its price is an evidence of social responsibility of business. The growth of manpower value significance for the labor market subjects proves the necessity of its scientific research.

According to the Resolution of International Conference on Statistics (1985), manpower value is the amount of actual expenses of an employer for maintenance of labor force, based on relevant expenditures which can be divided into the guaranteed and unwarranted ones.

In Ukraine the guaranteed expenditures for manpower are those fixed by law (direct payment for work, prepayment, a single social contribution etc.). At the same time, expenditures for manpower fixed in the local normative and legal acts are mainly unwarranted as the possibility of payments is provided just if funds are available (payment for accommodation and professional training of workers, cultural and consumer service etc.).

In Ukraine the expenditures guaranteed by the law are prevailing (about 96%), and unwarranted expenses account for about 4% in the structure of manpower value. Herewith, during the period of 2001–2010 the guaranteed expenditures in the value of manpower were growing when the voluntary ones were decreasing. It shows the extremely low level of social responsibility in the state.

In Ukraine considerable differentiation is observed in the value of manpower by region, economic activity and enterprise size. In order to stimulate employers to increase the value of labor force in the part of voluntary expenses, it would be reasonable to exclude them from the list of payments which are basic for accounting a single social contribution. However, in general, the high level of economic development of a region, industry and an enterprise ensures more expenditure for workforce. So, the increase of manpower value should be provided within the framework of programs on stimulating economic development of regions (industries).

Key words: labor market, subjects of labor market, manpower, manpower value, wages.


S. S. Gerasymenko, V. S. Gerasymenko

Statistical Characteristic of Food Consumption by the Population of Ukraine

The article presents the main conclusions of the analysis of food product consumption by the population of Ukraine over the last 100 years. The purpose of this study is to characterize dynamics of the consumption level and the reasons of its variation. A special attention is paid to the comparison of actual level of consumption and nutrition standards – physiological and social.

In the climatic area where Ukraine is situated cereals are the basic crops determining the production volume of the most food-staffs. In 1895 – 1916 grain production in Ukraine averaged 1200 mln. poods. To provide 3154 kilocalories (the average physiological standard used in the Russian Empire for working out of measures to guarantee the necessary for the population food-stuffs output), 26–26,5 poods of cereals (per head a year) should be produced. According to the mentioned standard the fund of grain consumption by the Ukraine’s population was equal to 830 ml poods, and the rest marketable grain was sold to other regions,

Since 1917 the new authorities – Provisional Government, the Directory, the Soviets had classified marketable grain as surplus and confiscated it from producers without compensation of expenses. To motivate confiscation nutrition standards were gradually lowering, and in 1920 they were fixed at the level of 2100 kilocalories that allows a person to live just in the state of “absolute rest”. The volume of confiscation was determined disregarding unfavorable weather conditions which in the period of 1920–1933 only twice (in 1925 and in1927) allowed to take the gross grain yield comparable with the level of 1913. As a result, the most of Ukraine’s population suffered from chronic undernourishment. In such conditions taking of grain crops out of Ukraine according to the surplusappropriation system led to the demographic disaster – manmade famine (Holodomor) twice – in 1921–1922 and 1932–1933, when 285 thousand people (5,5% of starving persons) and 3,85 mln. people (the death rate is 145‰) died of starvation in Ukraine.

In Ukraine of nowadays, according to the State Statistics Service data, the grain production provides nourishment of the population at the level of physiological standards in spite of the record grain crop in 2011.

A special research should be carried out in order to explain the growth of the families’ expenses for nourishment in the last years (in 2011 – 53,1% of the total sum of expenses) while the level of consumption of the most foodstuffs reduced.

Key words: food-stuffs, consumption rate, caloric content of food, factors of consumption level, consumption structure.


Ye. Ye. Sharilova

A Technique of Graphical Analysis of the Population Age Structure: “Quadrangles of Oldness (Youth)”

The article raises the problem of statistical estimation of the population age structure dynamics based on the system of indicators in conditions of continuous time series.

The dynamics regularity of the population age structure is clearly shown by the data at the beginning and at the end of studied period and, on the contrary, in conditions of continuous and short time series the dynamics tendency reveals not so simply.

The article describes the system of indicators of the state and dynamics of the population age structure, which is the basis for application of various statistical methods, including graphical analysis methods. Advantages and disadvantages of traditional methods of graphical analysis are considered, namely: age-sex pyramid, triangle of aging, structural diagram, triangular diagram.

The authors’ method of graphical analysis named “quads of oldness (youth)” is used to solve problems of measuring the dynamics of age structure of the population in the presence of a continuous time series. The described technique includes four consecutive stages:

1) forming a basic set of four homogeneous statistical indicators of oldness (youth);

2) rationing of initial values of parameters of basic set of four homogeneous statistical indicators of oldness


3) construction of quadrilaterals of oldness (youth) of population;

4) analytical stage of calculation of integral statistical indicators.

The article gives a graphic representation of the quadrangles of oldness (youth) based on conditional data to illustrate the possibilities of the age structure of the population.

The methodology of the dynamics of the population age structure proposed by the author has a number of advantages over similar techniques used in demography, namely:

– it allows us to represent the age structure of the population in four-dimensional space of homogeneous indicators;

– it provides the possibility of using relative values in evaluation;

– it gives the right to choose four statistical values, the most preferred and most important in the view of the purpose and objectives of the research;

– it provides the basis for calculating integrated statistical indicators of the dynamics of the population age structure;

– it doesn’t require any special software, as it is implemented in the table editor Excel.

However, the implementation of the algorithm method “quads of oldness (youth)” is complex and includes:

1) the formation of aggregate of four most important and informative indicators of oldness (youth);

2) the presence of a continuous series of the dynamics of four homogeneous statistical units;

3) the need in re-executing the algorithm of methodology with increasing dynamics of time series for at least one level;

4) a visual image of quadrangles is achieved by using data separated by a time interval of 5 or more years (failure of this requirement is compensated by calculation of integrated indicators).

In general, the method of graphical analysis “quads of oldness (youth)” is an effective tool of assessment and analysis of the dynamics of the population age structure according to the data of a continuous time series, including conditions of uncertain and multi-directional changes in the levels of homogeneous statistics.

Key words: graphical analysis methods, population age structure, demographic ageing, demographic rejuvenation, quadrangles of oldness, quadrangles of youth.


A. V. Tovchenko

Implementation of Classification of Economic Activities in Statistical Business Register of Ukraine

Implementation of Classification of Economic Activities (KVED-2010) in state statistical activity requires double coding of economic activities of enterprises both on KVED-2005 and KVED-2010) in the Statistical Business Register of Ukraine (SBR), that allows presenting statistical data on these two classifications and recalculation of the time series.

Since the revision of Classification of Economic Activities provides for carrying out retrospective analysis based on “double coding” of statistical units over a certain period, a special attention in this article is paid to the introduction of KVED-2010 into SBR.

The article analyses distribution between automatic and non-automatic transcoding on the main statistical classifications: Classification of Economic Activities (KVED-2005), Classification of Institutional Sectors of Economy of Ukraine (CISE), Classification of Units of Administrative-Territorial Structure of Ukraine (KOATUU). The methods and procedures for conversion of economic activities of enterprises in the SBR are considered. In particular, the author describes a method of stochastic transcoding used for the enterprises which are not of great statistical significance, and for those ones on which there is no complete information.

The paper also analyses transcoding of statistical units in the SBR and presents the rules and requirements to SBR as to the introduction of double coding for several years to ensure the transition of statistical observations to the new classification.

To provide enterprises with two codes of economic activities in the SBR during several years the rules for transcoding economic activities of statistical units are presented over 2009–2010.

The author describes a model of transition grouping in case when it is difficult to obtain information separately on the two classifications. The example of transition grouping is given.

On the results of using the methods, rules and procedures described in the article, enterprises of the SBR were recoded for 2009–2012.

The table of conformity between KVED-2005 and KVED-2010 as to the quantity of enterprises reflects transcoding quality.

Besides, the author presents a table of enterprise distribution both on KVED-2005 and KVED-2010, which shows structural changes resulted from introduction of KVED-2010 into SBR.

The result of the study is providing enterprises with codes of economic activities on KVED-2005 and on KVED-2010 in SBR for further implementation of KVED-2010 in statistical observations and in the system of national accounting.

Key words: Classification of Economic Activities, transcoding, Statistical Business Register, retrospective analysis, probabilistic models, transient classification


D. D. Aistrakhanov, D. V. Maksymenko

An Approach to Determination of Reserve Funds Volume in Case of Economic Crisis

The global and local economic crises are especially dangerous. Activity of many public and private organizations depends on the economic situation both in the world and in the country. An economic crisis is a serious disturbance in normal economic activity. One of crisis manifestations is systematic, mass accumulation of debts and inability of their liquidation in reasonable time. In present-day conditions insurance is an integral element of economic relations, and planning and formation of reserve funds is an important problem in activity of the most economic entities. One of the ways to set off the negative effects and consequences of economic crisis is preliminary creation of a reserve fund which would be constantly replenished both before the crisis and within it. For all that, the most difficult thing is the determination of the reserve fund size in case of economic crisis. The authors suggest a mathematically well-grounded methodical approach to the determination of a reserve fund share for different organizations, institutions and enterprises by the example of the State Employment Service of Ukraine.

To determine the reserve fund proportion it is assumed that, before the crisis sets in, the revenue function F(t) and cost function G(t) are in the ratio of F(t)=c(t)G(t), where c(t) is an unknown function to be found. The authors consider two basic cases:

1) c(t) - a constant function

2) c(t) - a piecewise constant function

In the first case the method of application of this approach is considered in detail by the example of work of the State Employment Service of Ukraine over the period of 2002–2012 characterized by the global economic crisis in 2008–2011. Using integral calculus and approximate calculation of integrals defined by parabolas a numerical value of the constant c was obtained. Herewith, this value corresponds with the real experience of the State Employment Service of Ukraine.

In the second case the methodical approach described in the article leads to the classical problem of linear programming: to find the minimum value of a linear criterion function, with linear constraints on integral variables in the form of inequalities. A module of difference between total income and total expenditures is taken for a criterion function. Linear constraints on the variables are chosen on the basis of statistics accumulated over the previous years.

The task solution is undoubtedly more difficult in the latter case. But such problem setting is much more coordinated with real organization management, since the share of savings can be changed each year (month, quarter, half-year). It should be noted that solution of the problem depends essentially on the linear constraints (in the form of inequalities) selected, for example, on the basis of plans of institution development. Moreover, the linear constraints should be chosen in a way that the obtained result would be resistant to them.

The approach to determining the share of contribution to the reserve fund in case of economic crisis can be used for calculations in various organizations, institutions and enterprises both manually and by automated control systems.

Key words: reserve fund, economic crisis, insurance fund, a share of savings in reserve fund, State Employment Service, mathematical programming.


T. V. Kobylynska

Agriculture Statistics in the Mirror of Ecology

The article reviews current organizational principles of environmental statistics and measures for improvement and development of the state statistical products in this sphere.

It is noted that the scientific and technological revolution has complicated interrelation of agricultural production and the environment, conditioned, first of all, by environmental problems emerged due to progressing pollution of the atmosphere, lands, waste accumulation and depletion of almost all types of natural resources.

The modern production is characterized by a high degree of concentration, automatization and advance to the insufficiently explored regions, rich in resources, as well as by the increasing quantity of used resources both on the total weight and on the quantity per capita. The article presents definitions of ecological agriculture and environmental statistics.

The organizational pattern of environmental statistics in Ukraine is given according to the administrative and territorial structure. A united system of state statistical bodies operates according to a single plan and scientifically grounded methodology for carrying out state statistical observation under the direction of the State Statistics Service of Ukraine. It is noted that the Agriculture and Environment Statistics Department is responsible for organization and carrying out of state statistical observations of agricultural enterprises on the issues relating to environmental protection. It plans statistical products in the sphere of management of nature, develops and implements the calculation methodology for statistical indicators on environmental issues.

The author analyses the critical situation as to the collection of data of statistical observations on environmental issues, in particular air protection from agricultural enterprises of all forms of ownership.

The ecological situation of the Zhytomyr region is characterized. It is noted that in 2011 323 enterprises of this region made pollutant emissions (excluding carbon dioxide) into the atmosphere from stationary sources, of which 5.5% was made by agricultural enterprises. Moreover, 198 companies contaminated the atmosphere by carbon dioxide (8.1%).

The dynamics of main indicators of anthropogenic impact on the environment of the region and expenditures for environmental protection measures shows the positive changes in ecological safety of the environment as vitally important for human existence and a component of national security.

Key words: agriculture statistics, ecological statistics, respondent, state statistical observation, statistical product, research and development.


L. V. Martynyuk

Statistical Analysis in the System of Effective Managerial Decision Making in Tourism

This article is devoted to statistical analysis in the system of effective managerial decision making in tourism. It is shown that tourism is one of the most important highly profitable spheres of the economy, the most dynamic one, therefore, the access of Ukraine to the international tourist arena will promote a rise of the level of international cooperation of our state with other countries.

The paper considers the problems of tourism statistics as a main information source. An effect of tourism on the national economy is not clearly determined as it is impossible in the total amount of goods and services consumed in a certain period to distinguish the share consumed by tourists, guaranteed just by tourist activity and dependent on tourists’ expenditures. This problem can be solved by carrying out socio-economic sample surveys. The article analyses the results of sample inquiry of visitors (tourists and one-day visitors) carried out by the State Statistics Committee of Ukraine in 2007 in order to obtain information on the volume and distribution of tourist spending.

The state and local authorities need objective statistical information on the situation in the tourist sphere for working out effective state policy of its development, while entities of the tourist sphere use this information to determine strategy and tactics of their activity at the market. Carrying out statistical analysis is a precondition for successful decision making in tourism. An important basis for organization of proper support of statistical analysis is clear definition and solution of organizational and methodological and organizational and practical issues of statistical observation of the state and development of tourism in the Ukraine’s regions. From the practical-scientific position this study will allow to substantiate the purpose, object, observation unit, to work out a plan, to determine instruments and stages of statistical survey, to form the adequate system of indicators.

This paper studies an algorithm of the development, substantiation and adoption of managerial decisions based on the results of analysis of the situation in the tourist industry.

Key words: tourism, statistical analysis, managerial decisions, development strategy of the tourist industry, tourism monitoring system.


Ye. O. Katykhin

Social Responsibility Practice of Business in the Development of Labour Potential of an Enterprise

The article presents the analysis of social responsibility as to the development of labor resources based on non-financial reports of the companies, namely: “HOSHVA PR”, “NEMIROFF”, “Tetra Pak Ukraine”, “ASTARTA-KYIV”, “National Insurance Company “ORANTA”.

The companies operate in different directions and in different spheres, but understanding the role of labor resources in its own development, each company invests its assets for professional and personal development of employees, for an increase of their competitiveness, and thus, the competitiveness of the company itself and maximization of its profits in the future.

The article analyses the definitions of labor potential, labor resources, economically active and economically inactive population. The author considers the various experts' positions as to the effect of labour potential on competitiveness and development of an enterprise.

The paper also studies the approaches of different companies implementing the philosophy of corporate social responsibility, to the development of professional and personal skills of employees.

The author considers the companies’ approaches in the spheres of manpower policy (staff recruitment criteria); professional development of employees and training (probation) of new specialists (probation of graduating students with the possibility of further job placement, company’s training courses); internal and external measures for professional and personal development (possibility to study at the institutes of higher education, to participate in national and international events); payment for work; labour protection; social security (except compulsory one, provided by the law and collective agreements, such as compensation for the use of a car for official purposes, the provision of mobile communication, health insurance, etc.); companies’ feedback with employees (studying positions of employees on different aspects of the company's activity, assessment of their personal achievements and career prospects etc.) and others.

Besides, the author analyses the Law of Ukraine “On Employment”, put in force on January 1, 2013, aimed at complex problem-solving in the sphere of employment. The Law provides for a number of measures facilitating access to the labour market for vulnerable groups of the population, as well as the measures aimed at preventing unemployment and alleviating its effects.

Key words: corporate social responsibility, labor potential, labor resource, economically active population, United Nations Global Compact.


O. Yu. Korchmit

Application of State Social Standards in Public Services: Social Aspects and Energy-Saving Policy

The paper presents the analysis of the current system of social protection of the population in the sphere of public services. A number of shortcomings preventing balanced development of public services sphere were revealed, namely: the low level of targeting of benefits and subsidies, inefficiency of government expenditures and lack of interest of persons enjoying privileges for economical services consumption.

The article also analyses the legislation as to establishing standards of public services consumption to grant state social assistance for developing and implementing social standards of housing and consumption of public services, guaranteed by benefits and subsidies for low-income citizens. The list of Ukraine’s legal documents was formed providing benefits and subsidies for payment of housing and municipal services.

It is proved that the results of calculations of current standards of consumption of housing and municipal services are the consequences of the local authorities’ policy or instruments for decreasing unprofitability of an economic entity in the sphere of public services. Data on actual service consumption by beneficiaries are proved to be the basis for assessment of the size of social norms and standards. The author suggests methodological approaches to the estimation of volumes, conditions and terms of implementation of social standards of housing and municipal service consumption.

The article presents the correlation of current norms and suggested standards reflecting the average index of service consumption by the households receiving subsidies for payment of public services. Socio-demographic and technical and economic factors of effect on social norm sizes and their dynamics are characterized. It is proved that recommended norms and standards strengthen social justice, targeting of social security measures, introduce mechanisms stimulating the population to resource saving, take account of climatic peculiarities of a region and thermotechnical characteristics of dwellings.

The author also substantiates the level of legal support for implementation of social norms and standards ensuring minimum political risks and maximum coverage of the households which need social assistance of the state for payment of public services.

Expert estimates are presented as to saving of budget expenditures for benefits and subsidies, and also the forecasts on decrease in consumption of natural gas, hot and cold water by the population. Possible negative social consequences are mentioned, namely: the share of households that will lose the right for subsidies or increasing specific expenditures of persons enjoying privileges.

It is proved that transition to the calculation of the volume of government social support on the basis of social norms and standards creates preconditions for the implementation of target provision of subsidies in cash, its transparency and quickness of administration should improve the social perception of tariff and price changes on public services.

Prospects of further scientific studies are estimated as to the development of mechanism of social protection in the sphere of public services in terms of improving flexibility, target orientation using the EU countries’ experience, in particular introduction of the income qualification for beneficiaries as a single social characteristic for receiving benefits, creating institutional basis for abolition of benefits and introduction of a single purpose monetary subsidy with compulsory criterion of income qualification.

Key words: social norms, public services sector, mechanisms of state regulation, energy saving, beneficiaries.


N. V. Lebed

Subjects of Legislative Activity

The successive development of the Ukrainian state and society depends on different factors, in particular, on its legislation. Therefore, legislative activity is of great importance in public management as working out and adoption of lows is one of the key functions of the state. The participants of legislative activity play an important role in creation of proper legislation. They are: subjects of the right of legislative initiative and other persons relevant to elaboration, expert examination and estimation of draft laws.

The urgency of this research lies in the necessity of understanding of the nature and determination of peculiarities of the above-mentioned subjects and solution of the key problems of their activity.

According to the Constitution of Ukraine, the President, the members of Parliament, the Cabinet of Ministers and the National Bank of Ukraine are the subjects of the right of legislative initiative (art. 93). Each of these subjects has different lawmaking possibilities, though they are equal as to the essence and the extent of the right of legislative initiative they have.

The Constitution of Ukraine outlines the authority of the President of Ukraine in the sphere of legislative activity and his right as of the subject of the right of legislative initiative.

The members of Parliament as representatives of the Ukrainian people initiate, work out, discuss and adopt draft laws.

The Cabinet of Ministers of Ukraine, exercising its right of legislative initiative, works out and introduces draft laws to the Parliament, prepares draft laws on the programs of economic, scientific and technological, social and cultural development of Ukraine, which, according to the Constitution of Ukraine, are adopted by the Parliament as well, as the draft law on the Budget of Ukraine.

The National Bank of Ukraine is also a subject of the right of legislative initiative. It regulates specific issues within the framework of its right and authority relating, first of all, to the maintenance of the stable monetary unit of Ukraine.

Not only those subjects, prescribed by the Constitution, are involved in legislative activity, but also the Verkhovna Rada of Ukraine, its committees, executive bodies, local authorities, judicial bodies, legal persons, public organizations, political parties, research establishments, specialists etc.

A substantial improvement of quality and effectiveness of the Ukrainian legislation can be achieved by the high level of qualification, cooperation between the subjects of the right of legislative initiative and subjects of legislative activity whose interaction should be performed on the basis of scientifically grounded state strategy of the development of the legal system of Ukraine with the account of the best international practices in this sphere.

Key words: legislative activity, legislation, subjects of legislative activity, subject of the right of legislative initiative.


L. M. Melnychuk

Problems of Forming Motivational Mechanism for State Regulation of Family Institution Development in Ukraine

The article analyses the problems of state-management relations concerning the development of the social institution of family, studies preconditions, orientation and main subjects of possible interference of the state in the processes of changes in family relations. Taking into consideration the system of moral values of a person, the system of legal and moral rules influencing family behaviour, the author proves the importance and expediency of forming motivational mechanism for state regulation of family institution development, i.e. using the system of control levers influencing requirements of a person and a family when choosing socially desirable family behaviour models.

On the basis of theoretical works on public management and control the article suggests the definition of the concept of motivational mechanism of state regulation of family institution development, substantiates its content based on the use of a number of methods, means and instruments of regulation and also of a complex of necessary resources. The main components of motivational mechanism for regulation of family institution development are determined and a set of specific means, levers and instruments of state influence is suggested. In particular, motivational mechanism should provide creation of incentive environment, guidelines for choosing the desired model of family behaviour, i.e. making “pro-family” socio-economic policy, forming public opinion as to social prestigeousness of the family way of life, motherhood, parenthood, setting limits on the negative patterns of the family behaviour.

The article analyses peculiarities of state regulation of the development of social institution of family in Ukraine and elucidates important problems arising in control activity both at the normative-legal and program-purpose levels. Particularly, it is determined that following a policy of economic, social and cultural development is characterized by disregard of family interests in the most spheres of vital activity of a society. Such situation causes the necessity of reorientation of socio-economic policy, first of all its main directions on the implementation of purposes of family policy.

Using results of the analysis the author suggests the key lines of the improvement of motivational mechanism for state regulation of the processes of family changes oriented to the enhancement of efficiency and productivity of public authorities’ activity in the present-day socio-economic conditions.

Key words: state regulation, managerial activity, motivational mechanism, family policy, family institution development, family relations.