О. Е. Оstapchuk, Т. I. Lumpova

Approaches to Systematization of Statistical Indicators

Issues of systematization of statistical indicators for constructing a hierarchical classification of statistical indicators, as an important task in building up a standard metadata system for internal and external users of statistical information provided by the State Statistics Service of Ukraine,   are studied. Its solution lays the basis for effective introduction of the integrated system of statistical information controlled by metadata (SICM). The analytical framework for systematization is unified (standardized) descriptions of official statistical observations (UDOSO), introduced as part of the Strategy for Development of Official Statistics till 2012.

A statistical indicator includes three components, in accordance with methodology for its metadescription: the base (first component), which is indicative of the meaning, peculiar features and specifics of a phenomenon or a process, without fixed time or location of a statistical observation; quantitative value, or variable in the common terminology (second component), indicative of the size (volume, level)      of a phenomenon or process; and attributes (third component) as a set of quantitative characteristics embodied in the base of a statistical indicator. The problem of systematization of statistical indicators is dealt with from the perspective of systematization of their bases.

Systematization of the bases of statistical indicators was made considering that a classification of statistical indicators in SICM, apart from its direct function, is supposed to be the basis for integrating statistical data from various official statistical observations, to simplify information recording, enhance reliability of data processing, organize information protection, and secure sanctioned information access and higher operative stability of SICM.

Breaking and systematization of the set of statistical indicators was made by content of the base of a statistical indicator, with breaking by hierarchical groups according to phenomenon/process measured by statistical indicators and defining vertical links between hierarchical groups through correlating the general and the specific, by considering them as a set and a subset, and horizontal links, through correlating the identity and the variance.

The proposed scheme for systematization is supposed as an attempt to define the principles underlying the classification of statistical indicators rather than a final methodological solution. It requires further in-depth studies, the expected final result being a classification of statistical indicators as a practical tool for official statistics bodies, in pursuing strategic goals that are sequentially outlined in the two latest long-term programs for development of statistics in Ukraine.

Keywords: informative model, statistical metadata, statistical indicator, statistical information systems, statistical observation.


V. V. Ryazantseva

Valuation of Bank Capital: Theory and Practice.

Part 1. Hang-the-Expense and Comparative Approaches

Strong and weak sides of different approaches to business valuation are studied, tools for business valuation are defined and tested on banking activities, the value of bank capital for future periods is estimated. It is shown that the bank value is a measure of its management performance, stability and business attractiveness, and that bank valuation is used as a tool for strategic management, for decision-making on investment, mergers, acquisitions, turnarounds, restructuring etc., and as a means to cope with financial problems in a bank, to enhance its efficiency and operative control.

Equity valuation of the Ukrainian “Sberbank” (Savings-Bank) is made by the hang-the-expense approach and the comparative approach; the aggregated value of its capital is calculated.

The method of accumulated net assets is used as part of the hang-the-expense approach. The net asset value is calculated by item of the balance sheet adjusted in accordance with conclusions of independent auditors. The auditors’ results measure the real value of tangible assets of “Sberbank” as of the date of valuation. Valuation of banks by the comparative approach is performed using the activity-based method. Banks for comparison are selected on the basis of statistical information on the volume of transactions signed at the stock exchange. Calculations show the applicability of the above two approaches for valuation of Ukrainian banks and other business entities in Ukraine.

Keywords: valuation of bank, bank’s equity, valuation by hang-the-expense approach, valuation by comparative approach, method of net assets, price/assets multiplier, price/equity multiplier, banks for comparison, forecasted value of bank’s capital.



L. О. Yaschenko

Forecasting of the Public Debt by Incomes and Expenditure of the State Budget of Ukraine

Public debt is the money owed by any branch of a government. Its amount and dynamics show the economic and financial performance of a country and the efficiency of its government. The methods for repayment of debts have implications for budgetary capacity and currency reserves of a country, and, hence, for the stability of the national currency, interest rates, investment climate, operation of all the segments of the national financial market. Public debt, therefore is not only a required means for financing the needs of the government, but an important tool for financial policy of the government, which, when used in a wrong way, can trigger serious problems or even financial crisis. Also, the accelerated growth of budgetary deficit pushes up internal and external debt, thus indicating a correlation between the public debt and the incomes and expenditures of the budget. Rational administration of public debt is, therefore, a priority objective of the government.

4 regression equations are built for forecasting the external and internal debt by incomes and expenditures of the central budget of Ukraine, one by extrapolation methods and three by factor models. These equations gave the alarming ratios of the budget balance to GDP for 2013 and 2014, exceeding the normative one ±3%, and 11 percent and 9 percent growth of internal debt and external debt for 2014.  

The above figure born in mind, the Ukrainian government must deal with a series of important problems in the forthcoming future, concerned with public debt, to avoid default of the Ukrainian economy, enhance the credit rating of Ukraine and lay the firm ground for future economic development.

Keywords: forecasting, external debt, internal debt, budget incomes, budget expenditures.


Ya. M. Kazyuk

Issues of Fiscal Decentralization of Local Budgets System Management

Local budgets have an important role in financing the functions of local governments. The political choice of fiscal decentralization in Ukraine calls for a new socio-economic role of local governments, which would require formation of financially sustainable local budgets.

The existing Ukrainian system of local governance does not meet the society needs. The functioning of local governments in the majority of local communities does not ensure fostering and maintenance of a favorable living environment for the comprehensive development of a human, protection of human rights, easy access to high quality administrative and social services through the sustainable development. Also, the majority of communities, being too small in size and too weak financially, have proven unable to perform the functions and responsibilities at local self-governance level.

As local budgets in Ukraine have been weak and chronically short, the functions commissioned to local governments could never be performed locally. The share of local revenues in the consolidated budget of Ukraine has been shrinking year by year, whereas the share of local budget expenditures in the consolidated budget of Ukraine has been nearly twofold higher than the share of revenues of the local budgets. Also, the local finances have been permanently short because of a vast share (from 80 to 90 percent, of which 70 percent are salaries) of “legally protected” expenditures.

An essential reason for weakness of the local governments is lack of the central government’s concern in decentralization of the budget and tax system, as this will limit its political pressures on the local authorities and narrow the financial capacity of the central budget. Apart from the increased role of the local governments, decentralization will require new approaches to balancing of the local budgets.

Ukraine should continue strengthening the system of local budgets by commissioning the responsibilities for local budget expenditures to local governments, along with an adequate increase in their financial capacities.

Keywords: local budgets, decentralization of governance, local self-governance.


H. B. Titarenko,

Problem of Measuring Technology Transfer in Building up the National Innovation System in Ukraine

Issues of innovation in the context of revision of methodology and definitions for measuring technology transfer and their reflection in the global and domestic practices are discussed. Problems that arise in evaluating the innovation are related with permanent up-dating of innovation indicators in European countries. The problem can be dealt with by harmonizing the existing data sources, using internationally comparable data, collecting supplementary data for a better understanding of the factors behind the innovation process.

Key words: National Innovation System (NIS), NIS methodology, technology transfer, indicators.


М. D. Коrinko, V. V. Pabat

Responsibility Sharing in Business Management

Theoretical approaches to responsibility sharing in a business management system, incorporating planning, accounting, control, analysis, management decisions making, are discussed.

It is argued that the changing business environment requires revisions and improvements in theoretical and methodological framework of business management system.

It is shown that the development of a system is dependent on its objective and strategic areas of its development, set by stakeholders of this system. In view of tendencies specific to business process, the initial phase of its implementation is planning. Planning as an input function of management is an implicitly required process of setting up goals that an enterprise is supposed to achieve in the business process in a preset period of time, preset ways and conditions. Realization of business operations for coming up with preset figures is secured by sound reporting of business operation parameters with subsequent control and analysis of results. Results of comparisons and audits allow business managers to take decisions on adjustments of business plan or actions on its implementation. Therefore, the consistent link between managers’ actions at various phases of implementing a management decision is of a critical significance for successful implementation of business projects.

Keywords: business activities, management system, managers.


A. V. Kuksa

Regulatory Framework for Statistical Evaluation of Public Finances Worldwide

Issues of standardization and harmonization of information about the system of public finances worldwide are discussed. It is shown that today international organizations (International Monetary Fund, United Nations, International Organization of Supreme Audit Institutions and others) play an important role the regulatory adjustment of the statistical evaluation of public finances.

The basic regulatory documents on collection and analysis of information about public finances are systematized and grouped. They are: Sixth edition of the IMF's Balance of Payments and International Investment Position Manual, Government Finance Statistics Manual, Special Data Dissemination Standard, Code of Good Practices on Fiscal Transparency and others. Their general description is given.

The basic failings of statistics of public finances in Ukraine are highlighted.

Keywords: public finances, statistical evaluation of public finances, statistical analysis of public finances.


Yu. I. Prylypko

Measurement of the Shadow Economy by Departmental Methods

Methods are discussed in the article, developed by the author and used by the Ukrainian Ministry of Economic Development and State Statistics Service of Ukraine in measuring the shadow economy. While the Ministry of Economic Development uses the concept of “shadow economy”, the State Statistics Services uses the concept of “economy that cannot be directly observed”. The difference in these notions and the coverage of economic activities is described. Due to change in the financial reporting and complications with collecting and supplying depersonalized basic data, modification of the method used by the Ministry of Economic Development is offered, confined to use of information published by the State Statistics Service. The proposed methodology consists of the four separate methods for calculating the weighted integral coefficient. In the financial method, measurement is based on the dynamics of the share of value added in the net income of enterprises, occurring due to change in its components such as taxes, income, salary and amortization. Changes are calculated using indicators or their indices. A brief review of other methods and their use for measurement purposes is given; the integral coefficients of levels of shadow sector over the period of 2008–2013 are derived on the quarterly basis.

Calculations by the method used by the State Statistics Service of Ukraine are made by main types of the economy that cannot be directly observed, with highlighting its weaknesses and potential improvements. Differences in methodologies and measures derived in these departments are highlighted by way of the author’s calculations, with showing basic trends and dynamics of the shadow sector in the period of the aggravating political and economic crisis in Ukraine.

Keywords: shadow economy, methods for measurement of shadow economy, economy that cannot be directly observed, structure of value added.


І. А. Zharska,  V. М. Netkova

Existing Performance and Tendencies in the Development of Education Services in Ukraine: Statistical Estimates

Education is an important part of any society. The market of education services in Ukraine has been expanding, but it still features a considerable diversity. The role of the “prestige” factor in the choice of a university has been growing. Great efforts are, therefore, required to select an optimal strategy for positioning of a university and outline the areas for enhancing the quality of its education services.

Statistics on HEEs, students and professionals for the period 1990–2013 is analyzed, with showing the results of external independent survey for the period 2010–2013.

Grouping of Ukrainian HEEs with the specialty "Marketing" by location is made, with focus on the marketing department of the Odessa National Economics University (ONEU), to derive its competitive position and areas for further improvement of the educational services provided by the ONEU marketing department. For this purpose, a marketing study of consumer behavior was conducted on three target groups: university entrants, students, and parents. The data was analyzed by statistical data analysis package SPSS, with dispersion, factor and cluster analysis made in the program Excel.

The obtained results for each target group indicate heterogeneity of the target audience, which was found for all the responses. The respondents, when answering the same question about the job, were guided by quite different factors when deciding about a university, parents who have already decided about the university for their child had a wrong idea about marketing etc. These results indicate the need for the continuous monitoring of consumer behavior in Ukrainian HEEs and consideration for their results in strategy building.

The marketing study allows for identifying the main factors behind the behavior of consumers of educational services and learning about the extent of and reasons for satisfaction / dissatisfaction with the educational process in general and its selected components. Its results allow for identifying the areas for building up strategies for promoting and positioning HEE services.

Keywords: market, education services, marketing study, analysis of variance, correlation, factor analysis, cluster, hypothesis, licensed volume, ranking.


V. I. Каrpov, N. O. Parfentseva, Ya. Ya. Karchev, H. V. Holubova

All-Ukrainian Students Contest on the Discipline “Statistics”: Statistical Aspect

The aim of this work is to analyze data on the All-Ukrainian Students’ Contest on the Discipline "Statistics" (referred hereinafter as Contest), hosted by the National Academy of Statistics, Accounting and Audit (NASAA) in 2011/2012, 2012/2013 and 2013/2014 academic years.

Analysis of the participants of I round of II Contest for the three latest years is contained; geographic location of participants of II round of II phase of the Contest is given. As shown by the analysis, in 2011/2012 academic year, almost one third (27.3 %) of the participants came from the Eastern regions of Ukraine, 25.4 % from the Northern regions and 20.0% from the central regions. In 2012/2013 academic year, the largest share (40%) were from the Northern regions, 24.7% from the East, which is 2.6 percentage points less than in the 2011/2012 academic year, and 15.3% were from the South (4.4 p. p. more than in the previous year). The share of participants from Central and Western regions of Ukraine in 2012/2013 academic year was the lowest (9.4% and 10.6%, respectively). In 2013/2014 academic year compared with the 2011/2012 academic year, the share of participants from Central regions of Ukraine grew by 10.6 p. p., as compared to the previous year – by 21.2 p. p. and amounted to 30.6%. The share of participants from the North in 2013/2014 academic year compared with the 2011/2012 academic year grew by 17.4 p. p., as compared to 2012/2013 academic year – only by 2.8 p. p. In 2013/2014 academic year, the share of participants from the East and the South compared with the previous year reduced by half (14.5 p. p. and 7.1 p. p., respectively), whereas the share of participants from the Western regions was falling in the analyzed period.

The analysis shows that the most frequent mistakes of students at the contests in 2011/2012 and 2012/2013 academic years pertained to the topics “Averages”, “Time series”, “Analysis of intensity and trends”, “Statistical methods of correlation analysis”, and to “Index method” and “Sample method” in 2013/2014 academic year.

The results of the study covering three academic years showed that the leader in the number of prizes was the Kiev T. Shevchenko National University (31% of the winners in three years), with the NASAU and Dnipropetrovsk O. Gonchar National University taking the second and the third place (13.8% and 10.3%).

The authors’ recommendations to improve organization of the Contest and tutorial work with gifted youth in HEEs are more extensive use of creative and logical tasks in statistical education, organization of students’ brain-rings etc., which would enhance students’ competence in various applied aspects of statistics and statistical terminology.

Keywords: statistics, statistical thinking, contest, higher educational institutions of Ukraine.


М. V. Lyesnikova

Statistical Classifications in Foreign Trade in Services: Review and Applications

The essential source for the development of National Statistics, adapted to the context of globalization of the world trade, is the established national system of statistical classification harmonized with international standards.

The revised version of the Classification of foreign services (KZEP) was enforced in Ukraine in December 2012. It is the background classification defining the categories of services that are subject to official statistical observations on foreign trade. External services in KZEP are commodities that do not pass the customs control and for which no customs declaration is made.

To meet the user needs, including the supply of information required for compiling the balance of payments and the national accounts, several reference items not related to transactions of services have been entered. As they provide useful supplementary information for analytical purposes, including one for data quality assessment, they need to be compiled in parallel with relevant components of the Extended Classification of Services for Balance of Payment.

Major improvements in the revised edition of KZEP are as follows:

- the more detailed elaboration of the sections, with adding the new ones: Section 1 "Services pertaining to processing of material resources", Section 2 "Services pertaining to repair and maintenance, not included in other categories";

- the more detailed elaboration of professional, technical and commercial services, administrative and support services, real estate services, rental and leasing services, services in arts and leisure & entertainment;

- introduction of reference items for enhancing the quality of the calculated values of services, for Section 1 "Services pertaining to processing of material resources", Section 6 "Insurance services", and Section 7 "Services pertaining to financial activities";

- the more detailed elaboration of the services covered by Section 12 "Services of general government";

- exclusion from the statistical records of the value of goods meant for processing without change in ownership, with recording the value of processing of these goods in Section 1 " Services pertaining to processing of material resources”;

- Section 2 "Services pertaining to repair and maintenance, not included in other categories," Section 4 "Travel services" and Section 5 "Construction services" include the value of goods involved in transactions;

- the significantly extended Section 8 "Royalties and other services pertaining to use of intellectual property."

Introduction of the revised KZEP edition in the statistical practice of Ukraine is supposed to provide internationally comparable statistical information required by participants to trade negotiations as a guide when elaborating specific commitments in services trade and the subsequent monitoring of their implementation or possible change that may occur in each service. This statistical information is required for making management decisions in setting priorities and strategies, for evaluating the achieved degree of liberalization for specific services and markets.


О. М. Моtuzka

Constructing the System of Statistical Indicators on International Technical Assistance

Technical Assistance Management (TAM) and its performance are dependent on the scopes of information supply for the management process. The system of statistical indicators is regarded as central to implementing the principles of statistical approach to TAM improvement. Construction of the indicators required for TAM, based on statistical data, is, therefore, an important part of the TAM studies. An essential problem in statistical reporting on technical assistance is comparability of relevant databases.

The purpose of the study is to construct the statistical indicators system for TAM. It is necessary to decide about an optimal nomenclature of indicators to be collected for each technical assistance program, although there can be supplementary indicators for selected programs. Also, the system of statistical indicators for TAM is supposed to meet the requirements of internal administration and international recommendations, and to reflect the core positive and negative effects from the TAM process for the sustainability of a recipient country.

A system of statistical indicators for TAM, which show the technical assistance purpose and the pertaining processes, is constructed on the basis of analyses of the European system of the sustained development indicators, data on the purposes of selected international projects of donor organizations, comparisons of statistical and administrative information and estimated performance of technical assistance, the current Ukrainian regulation on technical assistance. A draft format for the official statistical observation on technical assistance is developed, to collect the data for TAM. Because all the technical assistance indicators cannot be embedded in one format, the statistical observation should be targeted, or dependent on the category of program and the category of recipient, on the one hand, and thematic, or modular, to allow for obtaining information specific to certain programs and projects. The nomenclature of indicators, observation programs and modules need to be stored in the base of statistical metadata, in accordance with international practice.

It is concluded from the study that a system of technical assistance indicators for Ukraine may be broad enough, as Ukraine is a recipient of large amounts of external assistance targeted on enhancement of living standards, solutions for humanitarian problems, building up the socially oriented innovation-driven economic model etc. Yet, the statistics on technical assistance as a component of the statistics on foreign funding has specific functions that would require individual methods for constructing a system of input and output indicators of technical assistance.

Key words: international technical assistance, statistical indicator, official statistical observation.


I. A. Zhukovich

Smart-city as a New Object of Statistical Studies: Some Conceptual Aspects

Due to economic and political change associated with globalization and integration processes, even cities are faced with the problem of combining competitiveness and sustainability. The concept of “smart-city” as a combination of qualitative characteristics such as stable condition of the city, environmental, information and communication technology, innovation, creativity, is a key aspect of modern urban development and planning.

Today the expression “smart-city is often used but a single definition is not yet formed. International experts in the field continue elaborating its basic definitions and concepts.

The author discusses the concepts that laid the background for the concept ofsmart-cities”: the concept of industrial district of the “Third Italy”, the concept of industrial clusters, science and technology parks and technopolises, National Innovation System, Regional Innovation System and Local Innovation System, the paradigm of learning regions, the model of the “triple helix” and the model of “three T” (Technology, Talent and Tolerance).

Several existing working definitions of smart-city” are highlighted, with consideration to the parameters allowing a city to be referred to as smart. The common ground in these definitions is shown, which is the emphasis on the role of artificial intelligence, ICT, social and environmental potential as resource for development and competitiveness of a city. It is concluded that smart-cities can provide the link between fostering the environment beneficial for enhancing intellectual and educational skills of city residents, and competencies and innovative capacities of organizations operating in this environment.

Key words: smart-city, innovation, cluster, technology park, technopolis, regional innovation system, triple helix, model “three T”.


Т. М. Коbylynska

Statistics of Gross Agricultural Output: Methodological Aspects

Theoretical and methodological background for calculating gross agricultural output is discussed. Statistical data are used for analyzing the efficiency of gross output in the Ukrainian agriculture, including by plant-growing and animal husbandry subsectors.

It is shown that the agricultural statistics in Ukraine covers the two categories of agricultural producers, agricultural enterprises and households. According to the official statistics, their estimated numbers are 55.9 thousand and 5.1 million.

Yet, an integrated approach to measurement agricultural performance has not been practiced in Ukraine, which would cover all the components of agricultural production, especially ecological one, caused by the need for food safety.

The issues of nomenclature of agricultural products for statistical observation and calculation of basic prices for comparisons are dealt with.  Algorithm for basic price as the average weighted prices of market and nonmarket components of the gross agricultural output is shown. Two related algorithms for index of agricultural output are analyzed, which are used in parallel for control and verification purposes. The database used in calculating the annual gross agricultural output in basic prices, by agricultural producer category, is analyzed. Statistical analysis of the gross output and the efficiency of land use in agriculture is made. The analysis shows 28.7 percent growth in the gross agricultural output in 2013 compared by 2009 per 100 hectares of agricultural lands, which is an indicator of the increasing agricultural output, the increasing capacity of crops and the increasing output in animal husbandry.

The performance analysis of the Ukrainian agricultural sector in 2013 shows 11.5 percent profitability rate of the main activities at agricultural enterprises (not counting budgetary subsidies and transfers), against 20.2 percent in the preceding year. Average measures of the net income (returns) from agricultural sales and profitability are derived.

Key words: statistics of agriculture, gross output, profitability rate, profit, statistical analysis, system of indicators, business performance, agrarian sector.


V. I. Sarychev

Performance and Prospects of Global and National Tourist Sector in the Human Development Context

Current performance of the tourist market in Ukraine is studied with account for global experiences, trends and measures for competitiveness enhancement. Essential components of the Ukrainian tourist industry are analyzed, with outlining factors for its competitiveness enhancement from the perspective of increasing human capacity and mobility of the population. The significant educational, recreational and communicational capacity of the tourist industry born in mind, its positive trend is linked with human development issues.

Comparative analysis of performance and trends in the tourist industry is made by used global and Ukrainian statistical data. To look at Ukrainian tourist industry from the global perspective, statistical data on international tourist arrivals, incomes from international tourism (in 2008–2013), and 10 leading countries on international tourist arrivals (2012–2013) are taken. The performance and trends of the Ukrainian tourist market is shown by statistics on revenues and investment in the tourist industry in Ukraine (2008–2013) and tourist flows in Ukraine (number of tourists, 2002–2012). The analysis gives a strong evidence of the priority of tourist industry in terms of investment attractiveness.

The measures for competitiveness enhancement of the tourist industry in Ukraine are outlined, which are investment growth, optimization of the network of tourist firms through setting economically feasible proportion of tourist operators and tourist agents, consideration for the specifics of potential users of tourist services, development of new types of tourisms and innovation in the tourist industry.

Key words: market of tourist services, competitiveness, tourist industry, human capital, mobility of population, human development.


E. V. Chekotovsky

Tabular Procedure: Theory and History.

Part 1. Sources and Initiation of Tabular Procedure

The paper deals with historical aspects of initialization and development of tabular procedure on the basis of literature review. The article consists of three parts, each being devoted to a certain period of development and application of tabular procedure in statistics science.

It is mentioned that the idea of tabular procedure as an essential method of generalization and analysis is belonged to English philosopher Francis Bacon. He was the first to assume in his work The Novum Organum (published in 1620) that tables provided the opportunity for mind to reveal the essence of phenomenon and subjects, discover causal links between phenomena.

The paper emphasizes that the background of tabular procedure in statistics, from the perspective of modern understanding, was given in the works of founders of political arithmetic and their followers. They were the first to establish drawing up tables for systematizing of statistical data and setting them in the most suitable and clear form, and to use applied tables for calculating general statistical characteristics, namely, relative and average indexes.

An extensive reference is made to works of Danish scientist I. Anhersen and Russian scientist I. K. Kirilov, regarded as founders of statistical tables, to show their role in initialization and development of tabular procedure. The characteristics, terms and conditions that had negative effects for development and application of tabular procedure are shown.

Approaches of foreign statistic scientists such as A. Quetelet, A. Wagner, E. Engel, O. Oettingen, G. Majer concerning the role and the meaning of tabular procedure, necessity of its application for studying mass social and economic phenomena are highlighted.

A detailed review is given of the contributions of Russian academic statistics (J. E. Yanson, O. I. Chuprov, L. V. Fedorovich, L. V. Hodskiy) and Zemstvo (elected body of local self-governance) statistics in development and application of tabular procedure. It is mentioned that Zemstvo statistics discovered combinational statistical tables, devised the methodology for making up group and combinational tables and their application in statistics studies. The attention is paid to the scientific contribution of O. A. Kaufman, a famous Russian statistician, who was the first to propose a scientific definition of statistic table and to lay the background classification of statistical tables, which nowadays is used widely in statistic science.

Following the analysis of advantages and disadvantages of the classification of statistical tables, found in the literature, a new classification is provided by the author.

Key words: tabular method, statistical table, main elements and types of statistical tables, subject and predicate of statistical table, elementary statistical table, sectional statistical table, combinative statistical table, classification of statistical tables.