Abstracts

 

O. O. Vasyechko

Modern Challenges of Statistical Higher Education and Science

Higher education in Ukraine has been living through hard times, with the declining numbers of university entrants and post-graduate students on statistical specialties, the shrinking budget financing of statistical studies, the obvious gap between the three global components of statistical activities – statistical education, statistical studies and statistical practices. It results in inadequate staffing of official statistics offices, universities and the national economy as a whole with skilled statistical personnel. Unlike Ukraine, statistical competencies and studies have been increasingly demanded across the globe by institutions of both public and private sector. In view of the significance of statistical competencies in the modern society and the relevant global tendencies, the article focuses on strengthening the broader outlook component in teaching of statistical disciplines as a determinant for success of the overall learning process and a factor for building up the contemporary civil society. Issues of linking statistical education, statistical studies and official statistics practices are also dealt with.

The need for revision of traditional objectives of higher statistical education in order to strengthen the broader outlook component is stressed by reviewing essential global and European tendencies in higher statistical education. Issues of the importance of fostering statistical thought, tasks of statistical education and challenges of statistical science are examined from this perspective.

The conclusion is made that the broader outlook component has to form the methodological framework of higher statistical education, bearing in mind the increasing social importance of statistics. The considerably grown complexity of contemporary problems solved by statistical science and official statistics offices requires training of highly skilled professionals capable to solve sophisticated methodological tasks that require profound learning in the fields of mathematical statistics and economic statistics. A shown by global experiences, the established continuous and mutually beneficial links between statistical education, science and practices is the key to the progressive development of statistical education and formation of demand for professionals in statistics.

Key words: statistical thought, statistical education, statistical studies, official statistics.

 

R. O. Kulynych

Statistical Forecasting of Use of Energy Resources

The method to evaluate forecasting methods (regression, correlation analysis and statistical dependence equations), based on analysis of the forecasting errors using the method of complex statistical coefficients, is proposed. This retrospective approach allows us to establish the best method of forecasting. Trend calculations made in the article are also presented graphically with the derived minimum, medium and maximum predictive values. The reliability of forecasting on the basis of statistical dependencies equations is attained by calculating the sustainability level of the trend for the investigated equation. Use of average linear deviation is proposed for computing the values of the prediction interval (minimum and maximum values of the forecast) on the basis of statistical dependencies equations.

Key words: forecast, method of correlation and regression analysis, method of statistical equations dependencies, method of complex statistical coefficients.

 

L. О. Yaschenko, О. М. Motuzka

Methodological Framework for Computation of Business Expectations Indicators

Works on constructing indicators of business expectations have been of special importance, as they allow for monitoring of periods of economic growth and decline, with monthly or quarterly periodicity, and for predicting turning points.

When constructing indicators of business expectations, the majority of countries use results of Business Tendency Surveys, providing information on the current situation and future expectations of enterprises.

The article is written with reliance on recommendations on computation of business expectations indicators, found in the Joint Harmonized EU Program of Business and Consumer Surveys, which contain the nomenclature of business expectation indicators and their algorithms.

The main indicators of business expectations, produced in EU Member States in keeping with the Joint Harmonized EU Program, are indicators of business confidence in industry, construction, retail trade, services and, separately, in financial services; indicator of business climate; indicator of economic sentiment.

Indicators of business expectations are computed in order to have statistical information about business activity tendencies, comparative with the relevant data of EU Member States.

The purpose of the article is to demonstrate the algorithms of business expectations indicators, which are indicators of business confidence, indicator of business climate and indicator of business sentiments.

A phase in these indicators’ algorithm is seasonal adjustment, which, according to the Eurostat recommendations, is to be made by Demetra+ software.

Indicators of business confidence and indicator of economic sentiment are computed in MS Excel, whereas indicator of business climate is computed in SPSS, by use of the factor analysis module with the realized principal component analysis.

Indicators of business confidence, indicator of business climate and indicator of economic sentiments, which sum up the opinions and assessments of great numbers of economic agents, can be compared with some macroeconomic measures (such as GDP).

Key words: indicators of business expectations, indicators of business confidence, indicator of business climate, indicator of economic sentiments, seasonal adjustment, factor analysis.

 

R. P. Zadorozhna

Conceptualization of the Connection Between Financial Market, Market of Financial Services and Financial Sector

Ukraine's transition to market economy has caused significant changes in the financial system. This led to the necessity of application of new concepts and terms, including the terms of the financial market, market of financial services and financial sector. However, the multiplicity of interpretations complicates the statistical analysis of financial processes, which is central for evaluating the performances, dynamics and future tendencies of a national economy.

The analysis of the essence and the correlation between the concepts of financial market, market of financial services, financial sector (sector of financial corporations) shows that they are closely related, but radically different in the meaning.

The basis for the correlation of the studied categories is laid by the concept of financial market an abstract theoretical construct that should be understood as a special kind of market, a set of economic and legal relations of buying and selling of temporarily idle funds. The concept of financial market characterizes the mechanism of the so-called direct funding, which means the "direct" (actually involving institutional units of sub-sector of financial auxiliaries) transfer of temporarily idle funds from their owners to recipients.

The concept of market of financial services is legally defined for purposes of regulation of various financial services as an area of financial activities of market participants. The market of financial services includes the markets of service agreements at the financial market and the market of other financial services.

The concept of the financial sector (sector of financial corporations) is methodologically and methodically defined, in particular, by the SNA, as a set of resident corporations that provide financial services to other institutional units. The financial sector is, therefore, a set of financial institutions operating in the market of financial services.

Financial services for direct financing of transactions in the financial market are provided by institutional units of sub-sector (and also of category) of financial auxiliaries. Financial services for indirect financing agreements are provided by financial intermediaries. Institutional units of other financial corporations category (subsector of captive financial institutions and money lenders) mostly provide financial services within a limited group of units outside the open financial markets.

Therefore, due to the availability of appropriate methodologies and methods, the use of the concept of financial sector as a subject of statistical studies on the market component of the financial system seems to be the most reasonable. The concepts of financial market and market of financial services can be used for supplementary and specification purposes, with necessary accounting for the established connections and relationships between them.

Keywords: financial market, market of financial services, financial sector, financial corporations, System of National Accounts.

 

К. Yu. Kyselyov

Statistical Analysis of Consumption of Goods and Services by the Ukrainian Population in 2013

The purpose of this paper is to analyze the structure of services by economic activity, sales of services to the Ukrainian population in 2013, and define the integral index of consumption of goods and services by Ukrainian regions.

In the structure of services, the dominant position is held by "Transportation, storage, postal and courier activities" (38%), the second position "Information and Telecommunications" (20.4%), the third position "Professional, scientific and technical activities" (13.7%). Sales of services to the Ukrainian population in 2013 amounted to nearly 81 billion UAH, or 22.7% of the total sales of services.

By region, the lion's share of services (45.6%) was consumed by residents of the city of Kyiv, 7.2% by residents of the Autonomous Republic of Crimea, 5% accounted for Donetsk and Dnipropetrovs’k regions, 5.5% for Odesa region. The least scope of services was sold to the residents of Ternopol region (0.65%).

To calculate the integral index for the consumption of goods and services by the Ukrainian population, the method of multidimensional average is used, allowing for grouping of regions. Three stimulant indicators were selected, the scope of services, the retail trade turnover and the average monthly wages, because they measure both the result of the population’s solvency and the population’s spending on goods and services by Ukrainian region, and the consumer price index was selected as the de-stimulant, measuring growth of prices on goods and services, which suppresses their demand.

Normalization of the parameters and computation of the integral index allowed for grouping of the Ukrainian regions by consumption of goods and services by the population in 2013.

The group with very low consumption of goods and services by the population in 2013 included 6 Ukrainian regions. Most part of the Ukrainian regions (15 regions) formed the group with low consumption of goods and services, which can be explained by low wages of their residents. The group with moderate consumption includes five Ukrainian regions, with the largest sales of services in the Autonomous Republic of Crimea.The largest retail trade turnover per capita was іn the Kyiv region and the highest salaries were in Dnipropetrovsk, Kyiv, Kharkiv and Sevastopol. The highest value of the integral index (0.75) is derived for the city of Kyiv, indicating high level of consumption of goods and services by the population of the Ukrainian capital.

The analysis demonstrates the uneven distribution of consumption of goods and services across Ukraine.

Key words: consumption, goods, services, standardization, integral index.

 

S. O. Matkovsky, О. S. Hrynkevych

The System of Indicators for Statistical Study of Entrepreneurship

Entrepreneurship is an essential attribute of a market economy, providing for transformation of its resources into the gross value added. Its estimation is an essential task for official statistics bodies, whereas fostering of conditions for an entrepreneurial activity is a task for central and local governments.

The purpose of this study is to improve methodological and methodical principles, and to develop practical recommendations for building up the methodological framework for a system of indicators of entrepreneurship statistics in Ukraine.

The performed study and its results allow for formulating the following main conclusions.

1. The national entrepreneurship statistics has been actively developing due to the implementation of broader scientific methods and narrower statistical methods, conceptions, adaptation of international quality standards to national statistical products. Yet, both nationwide and regional statistical publications fail to properly present this sector as an integral, complex and dynamic system by use of cross-sectoral and sectoral indicators of entrepreneurship development in various economic activities.

2. Basic methodological approaches (process, functional and elemental) to statistical analysis of entrepreneurship, as well as main components and levels of the studied object should act as core features in building up a system of statistical indicators of entrepreneurship. As an example of the implementation of these approaches, three main components of the Statistical Entrepreneurship Database are proposed: I. Institutional transformations in entrepreneurship. II. Functional areas of activity in entrepreneurship. III. Entrepreneurship by economic activity with corresponding thematic groups of indicators.

3. Monitoring of indicators providing for the mission-oriented approach to business management and analysis of European experiences in studying business economics shows that the advanced areas in building up entrepreneurship statistics are in including the following indicators into thematic statistical projects and publications: (i) program indicators of entrepreneurship support; (ii) indicators on program performance; (iii) business demography indicators.

The development of meta-descriptions of key indicators for this sector of economic statistics may be the next step in implementing principles of global efficiency and increasing of the social status of entrepreneurship statistics.

Key words: statistics of entrepreneurship, business statistics, system of indicators, meta-description of a statistical indicator, business demography, migration of enterprises, mission-oriented approach to business regulation.

 

M. Yu. Avksientiev

Theoretical and Methodological Analysis of Approaches to Development of Higher Education in the Economic Regulation System

Main approaches to the planning of higher education in Ukraine as part of the economic regulation are discussed. A classification of the approaches into six groups is made by aggregating regulatory tools for higher education and their applications.

The six groups are the following: (i) approaches focused on reforming HEEs or their selected activities (such as financing, self-administration etc.); (ii) approaches where development of higher education is considered as a component of other problems, like  management of human and intellectual capital, supply of workforce to industries; (iii) approaches focused on adaptation of education systems in developed countries to Ukrainian realities; (iv) approaches focused on reforms in the financing system of Ukrainian HEEs; (v) approaches addressing the problem of the gap between the state order on training of skilled workforce and the real demand at the national labor market; (vi) other approaches addressing selected problems specific to higher education or calling to develop higher education in Ukraine by regulatory tools inappropriate for a market economy.

This classification allows for identifying typical drawbacks of the above groups of approaches: (i) disregard for institutional peculiarities of higher education and economic environment in Ukraine, stemming from market-based transformations;  (ii) lack of a system analysis into the planning-related problem by use of formalized econometric methods;  (iii) disregard for the assessment of economic effectiveness of the proposed methods and optimization of budgetary expenditures; (iv) solutions of tasks at theoretical level, without adaptation of tools and recommendations to practical implementation.

Key words: development of higher education, classification of regulatory tools for higher education, higher education reform.

 

H. B. Cherusheva

The Role of Economic Psychology in Professional Training of Economists

The role of humanitarian education in the system of professional training of economists is discussed. The humanistic emphasis of education process as an important factor in development of human values and moral qualities is shown. Methodological principles and theses of humanistic psychology are highlighted, with emphasis on the thesis that humanization of the society and education means recognition of a human personality as a mix of singular individual qualities, with his/her life being the highest social value.

The contemporary economic world view of a future specialist is fostered through acquisition of economic and psychological knowledge. Psychological training as part in the cycle of social and humanitarian disciplines has special importance in the system of humanitarian education of economists. Because search for ways to enhance economic development requires deeper rethinking of the laws governing psychological behavior of humans, the author makes extensive analysis of the role of economic psychology that deals with fundamental problems of economic theory from the economic determination perspective. An important objective of “Economic psychology” course is to foster economic thinking. Analysis of the economic education content leads to the conclusion that the course can help students understand the term “economic thinking” as a system of human ideas about tendencies in economic development, the essence of economic phenomena and processes and factors behind them. The detailed analysis of economic thinking and economic consciousness is given; psychological analysis of economic activities aimed at satisfying economic needs is made.

Economic needs are shown as a source for socio-economic actions to sustain the life of an individual, a social group, a community. The concepts of “economic” and “real” behavior of an individual are interpreted; specifics and types of economic behavior are outlined. The category of “economic activities” is defined as a specific kind of human’s relations with the environment, aimed at its transformation. Economic activities act as an important factor for the development of an individual as an economic agent, through satisfying his/her needs and perfecting his/her personal and professional abilities and skills. It is the main value of economic activities, acting as a driving force to success in a production-related activity.

The conclusion is made that the boosting economic activities in Ukraine in the transformation period are caused by the need of “economic” man in self-expression of his/her personality, realization of his/her personal unique creative potential.

Key words: “economic” man, economic needs, economic activities, economic thought, economic consciousness.