Abstracts

 

O. H. Osaulenko,

DSc in Public Administration, Professor,

Correspondent Member of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine,

Honored Economist of Ukraine,

Rector of National Academy of Statistics, Accounting and Audit;

S. S. Herasymenko,

DSc in Economics, Professor,

Acting Head of Statistics Department,

National Academy of Statistics, Accounting and Audit

Statistical Estimates of Social Inequality and Poverty in Ukraine

The objective of the study is to describe statistical methods for measurement of social inequality and poverty. The complexity of statistical description of life standard and its components is emphasized at the beginning of the study. First and foremost, it concerns organization of statistical survey and methods for aggregation of the collected data for computation of aggregated measure. It explains a wide gap between measures of the population’s life standard and its components like life satisfaction, produced by various organizations. This raises the need in improvement of statistical methodologies for the measurement, to produce more credible and reliable information. Bearing in mind the importance of solutions aiming to relieve social tensions, the study is focused on detailed analysis of the essence of social inequality and poverty, commonly used methods for their statistical measurement. Sources of statistical data that can be used for this purpose are described. In Ukraine, measurement and analysis of poverty level is made by use of the data collected in the household survey. The survey program is supplemented by questions of sociological bearing. Thus, households’ self assessment of the welfare level is made by subjective estimates on the sufficiency of incomes for satisfaction of basic necessities, estimates on the constraints on consumer capacities due to shortage of money, and estimates on social self-identification. Yet, self-identification estimates of poverty level have a notable shortcoming implicit in an essential feature of this method, which is subjectivity. Notable shortcomings are found in the majority of other indicators proposed for poverty measurement by various international institutions. It is emphasized that the measures of social inequality will have better credibility and reliability, when a set of causally linked statistical indicators is used, which would enable for making comparative analysis by population group and territory; for identifying the foremost factors that cause variations in the life standard of population groups; for setting up priority measures aimed at elimination of social inequality.

Key words: social inequality, absolute and relative poverty, statistical indicators of poverty and social inequality, integral index, international rating, self assessment, deprivation.

 

 

Z. P. Baranyk,

DSc in Economics, Professor,

Deputy-Head of Statistics Department;

Yu. А. Kovalevskyi,

PhD in Economics;

Vadym Hetman Kyiv National Economic University

Statistical Evaluation of Correlation between Labor Supply and Demand: Methodology and Practice

The aim of study is to justify theoretical and methodological principles and statistical tools for comprehensive analysis and evaluation of the correlation between labor demand and supply at the labor market. The place and role of the statistical analysis of labor demand and supply in the regulatory system is shown. The model of regulatory framework on labor demand and supply is constructed. Factors influencing labor demand and supply are grouped and analyzed. Components of comprehensive statistical analysis of labor market demand and supply are highlighted, which, once included, can significantly improve the analysis methodology. Statistical analysis of labor demand and supply in Ukraine is made.

Key words: labor demand and supply, сorrelation, labor market, statistical analysis, balance, social and labor relations, proportional distribution, multi-dimensional clustering, forecasting.

 

 

Z. P. Baranyk,

DSc in Economics, Professor,

Deputy-Head of Statistics Department;

Yu. А. Kovalevskyi,

PhD in Economics;

Vadym Hetman Kyiv National Economic University

Statistical Evaluation of Correlation between Labor Supply and Demand: Methodology and Practice

One of the key macroeconomic problems of the Ukrainian labor market is structural mismatch of labor demand and supply. The aim of this article is to justify theoretical and methodological principles and statistical tools for comprehensive analysis and evaluation of the correlation between labor demand and supply at the labor market.

Arguments for the need for improvements in the existing theoretical and methodological framework for statistical analysis of labor supply and demand are given. The place and role of the statistical analysis of labor demand and supply in the regulatory system is shown. The model of regulatory framework on labor demand and supply is constructed. Factors influencing labor demand and supply are grouped and analyzed; factors increasing and reducing tensions at labor market are outlined. Methodological foundations for comprehensive statistical analysis of labor demand and supply can be radically improved once the following components of the analysis are involved: measurement of labor demand and supply; evaluation of the structure of labor demand and supply; retrospective analysis and forecasting of labor demand and supply; measurement of the impact of socioeconomic factors on labor supply and demand; analysis of labor demand and supply for professional staff; analysis of distribution of labor demand and supply; multidimensional clustering of regions by structural similarity of labor demand and supply; analysis of the difference in wages by economic activity. Descriptions of each component are given. The main groups of statistical indicators of labor force demand and supply are given.

     Statistical analysis of labor demand and supply in Ukraine is made for the period of 2001–2013. Significant imbalance between labor demand and supply is found across the Ukrainian regions, except for Kyiv, where the value of the indicator "unemployed burden for 1 vacancy (vacant position)" in recent years has remained unchanged (1 person). However, in other regions the situation is far worse, such as Vinnitsa region, with the load growing from 58 to 78 persons. The greatest imbalance between supply and demand of labor is found in the western and central regions of Ukraine, the "leaders" being Vinnytsia, Khmelnytsky and Cherkasy regions with burden per vacancy and vacant position 78.76 and 43 persons respectively. Expected load of unemployed for 1 vacancy (vacant position) in Ukraine in 2015 will amount to average of 9 persons.

Key words: labor demand and supply, сorrelation, labor market, statistical analysis, balance, social and labor relations, proportional distribution, multi-dimensional clustering, forecasting.

 

 

O. A. Vinnytska,

Post-Graduate Student,

National Academy of Statistics, Accounting and Audit

Economic and Statistical Analysis of Local Budgets Revenues

The article contains economic analysis of revenue generation for local budgets in the Ukrainian context by use of official statistical data covering, essentially, the period of 2008–2014.

A review of theoretical approach to interpretations of the notion “local budgets revenues” is made; for the analysis purposes, local budgets revenues are defined as a system of economic relations occurring between central power authorities, local administration bodies, physical persons and legal entities with regard to distribution and redistribution of GDP.

The level of financial decentralization in a country can be measured by the share of local budgets revenues in the consolidated budget. In the Ukrainian context, this share was continually decreasing. The statistical analysis of local budgets revenues by source of revenue shows the most significant sources: tax revenues (which, however, featured year-year reduction), personal tax revenues, and land-use charge. The structural analysis of the land-use charge shows the increasing share of land rent and the reducing one of land tax. Shares of the other taxes in tax revenues of local budgets in Ukraine were insignificant and shrinking.

It is shown that the ratio of transfers to tax revenues was up with the increasing share of transfers in local budgets, which is an evidence of high financial dependence of local self-governance bodies on central power authorities in Ukraine.

Keywords: local budgets, local budgets revenues, own revenues, fixed revenues, personal income tax, transfers.

 

 

O. K. Yelisieieva,

DSC of Economics, Professor,

Head of the Department of Statistics,

Accounting and Economic Informatics;

I. O. Plekhanova,

bachelor;

Oles Honchar Dnipropetrovsk National University

Statistical Analysis of the External Debt of Ukraine by Constructing a Cognitive Chart

The purpose of the study is to construct a cognitive map of the key factors of the external debt of Ukraine and to measure the impact of socio-economic indicators on the external debt of Ukraine by methods applied for statistical analyses of macroeconomic systems, such correlation method, theory of graphs, cognitive method, SWOT-analysis, PEST-analysis. The cognitive method is proposed as the most appropriate for modeling of complex by weakly formalized systems, which allowed for presenting the results in form of graph. The impact of the external debt components (loans of the general government, loans of monetary regulation bodies, loans of banks, loans of other sectors, inter-firm loans) on the external debt of Ukraine is measured for the year of 2013 by correlation method.

The impact of the four groups of factors (political, social, economic, others) on the external debt of Ukraine are measured for the year of 2013 by PEST-analysis, SWOT-analysis, expert review and correlation method. The following indicators are identified by PEST-analysis and SWOT-analysis: change in legal framework; change in discount rate; change in currency rate; GDP dynamics; inflation; employment; change in basic values; impact of mass media on public mentality; birth rate; change in the life standards of the Ukrainian population; use of new technologies; cross-sectoral impact of developments; intellectual property protection; self-regulation of economic factors; self-regulation within the foreign debt; political factors; economic factors; social factors; technological factors. The expert review excluded indicators of change is basic values, used of new technologies and intellectual property protection. The relationship of the above indicators is measured by correlation method.

The result of the study is as follows: the strongest impact on the foreign debt of Ukraine is made by political and economic factors, and loans of general government, whereas the weakest impact is made by social factors and loans of monetary regulation bodies.

Key words: statistical analysis, cognitive chart, external debt of Ukraine, impact factors, components of national debt, statistical modeling.

 

 

L. Ye. Momotyuk,

DSc in Economics, Associate Professor,

Vice-Rector on Research, Pedagogic

and Education Work,

National Academy of Statistics, Accounting and Audit

Predicting Financial Instability in Ukraine by Use of Warning Signal Indicators

An essential objective of statistical science is quick and timely elaboration of new approaches and models of financial system development, for solving specific ad hoc problems and for statistical grounding of preventive measures taken to avoid or mitigate the impact of negative factors capable to trigger shocks in financial system. Computations of threshold values of statistical indicators by data for 2006–2009 are made by use of the method for selection of leading signal indicators. It allows for testing their prediction capacity, which is the capacity for accurate signaling on the crisis occurrence before or in time of a financial and economic crisis.

The best prediction capacity is shown by the indicators of consumer price index, interest rate at interbank credit market, and balance on current account, which, when used, allow for increasing, by more than 50 percentage points, the probability of predicting the occurrence of financial instability in case of their signaling compared to unconditional probability of the instability. Also, the following indicators are effective: exchange rate of the Ukrainian hryvnya, external public debt, surplus of money, capital outflow, dynamics of gold reserves, and ratio of interest on loans to interest on deposits. The set of determined effective indicators is used for predicting the probability of the occurrence of financial crisis in 2015 by evaluating these indicators for 2014.

Key words: financial system, macroeconomic stability, financial stability indicators, monitoring system, warning signal indicators.

 

 

K. Ye. Orlova,

Senior Lecturer of Business Economics Department,

Zhytomyr State Technological University

The System for Support of Organization and Economic Mechanism for Adaptation of Extracting Enterprises to External Environment Conditions

Current economic conditions require from the enterprise management flexibility, efficiency, strategic thinking and capacities for using contingency approaches to management. Adaptation is a practical means for problem solution by management of enterprises. Implementation of adaptation processes requires building up an appropriate organization and economic mechanism, which important component is the support system. Although an important part of the economy, extracting industry is in the unstable condition because of the negative impact of external factors. The above mentioned emphasizes the importance of the topic under the study.

It is shown that adaptation means the process of enterprise’s adjustment to the conditions of unstable external environment, which involves structural, functional and managerial change aiming at stable operation and development of enterprise in the long-term future. A significant number of adaptation patterns can be found in business practices.

The system for support of organization and economic mechanism for adaptation is defined as a set of labor, financial, information, intellectual resources, methods, tools and management models aimed at the enterprise’s adaptation to the external environment conditions. The essential components of this system pertain to regulation, carders, finances, information and analysis, organization and methods.

The regulatory component is the system of regulatory acts at all the management levels, from national level to enterprise. Information and analysis component needs to be formed by phase of adaptation. The component pertaining to carders includes all the entities managing the adaptation process and their qualification characteristics. The financial component includes the financial resources required for implementation of the mechanism. The organization component is a system of communications and links between managing entities and managed units in the adaptation process, and the methodical component includes a set procedures and methods used in the adaptation process.

Structuring of the support system is an important component of the organization and economic mechanism for adaptation. The capabilities of a business entity to undertake adaption measures and the latter’s effectiveness are conditional on the adequacy and rationality of the support system.

Key words: adaptation, classification, support system, organization and economic mechanism, extracting enterprises.

 

 

L. L. Poltavets,

PhD (Economics),

Chief Specialist-Economist,

Department of Statistics in the Kremenchuh city,

Chief Department of Statistics in Poltava Region

Use of Methods of Multidimensional Grouping for Statistical Analysis of Energy Consumption at Regional Level

Effective energy consumption at macro- or mesolevel is an important factor of economic development. Consumption of energy resources (coal, gas and electricity in case of this study) in Ukrainian regions is uneven, being dependent on factors like share of industrial and agricultural output in regional value added, average income per capita in a region, share of out-dated industrial technologies in a region. In view of this, the objective of the study is to make clustering of Ukrainian regions by coal, gas and electricity consumption. The analysis rests on testing the following hypothesis: due to geographic and economic differences of the regions, the consumption of the above resources is distributed by them unevenly, which leads to the occurrence of homogenous groups of regions by measures of consumption of these resources.

The performed visualization of input data for the three variables (coal, gas and electricity consumptions) and testing of the results for the existence of a natural segmentation at the initial phase allows for the following findings: (i) the occurrence of two significant surges for consumptions of the three categories of resources, corresponding to Donetsk and Dnipropetrovsk regions; (ii) the occurrence of at least two natural segments, caused by a wide gap in consumption of the two categories of resources, gas and electricity. This leads to the assumption of the existence of two or three segments (clusters, homogenous groups) of Ukrainian regions by the three studied variables.

Two different although well known algorithms for cluster analysis are taken, to group the regions by electricity consumption: the algorithm based on agglomerative hierarchical clustering by the method of “most distant neighbor”, and the algorithm based on divisional segmentation by the method of -averages. Both algorithms show nearly the same results, breaking the regions into the three clusters: regions with low consumption of energy resources (16 objects), regions with high consumption of energy resources (2 objects), regions with medium consumption of energy resources (9 objects).

The following conclusions are made from the study: Ukrainian regions are not supposed to be homogenous from energy consumption perspective. When the task of constructing models for forecasting and planning of energy-related expenditures by region is set, it requires consideration for the results of clustering, with models constructed for each segment, in order to increase the accuracy and the reliability of forecasts. It should be noted that the main discriminating factors for regions are gas and electricity consumptions.

Key words: consumption of energy resources, cluster analysis, agglomerative and divisional clustering, hierarchical dendrogram, regional level.

 

 

J. J. Brown,

Professor,

School of Mathematical & Physical Sciences,

University of Technology Sydney,

E-mail: [email protected]

Future Models for Population Census: Can We Have an Administrative Based Census Without a Population Register?

Census-based information is still the bed-rock of population statistics for countries around the world. However, there is a clear recognition of the need to modernize the traditional census approach. While the need to population census type data is not controversial, there is an increasingly diverse approach to census taking around the world as countries respond to changing society and the desire to deliver information in the most cost-efficient way. Some of the alternative approaches to conducting census are highlighted, and possible application of an administrative-based approach in countries without a population register is discussed.

Approach one is modernising the Traditional Census, with focus on the innovative approach introduced by some countries (such as Canada and the U.K.), involving use of Internet to collect data from households, and its results. Approach two is complementing a traditional census with surveys, when all households receive a short-form that collects the basic household and individual data, while a sample of households receive a longer more detailed form; experiences of Canada and the U. S. are highlighted. Approach three is rolling census approach, which has been pioneered in France as a survey-based approach that both replaces the traditional population census and also yields more regular data at low levels of aggregation; its technical peculiarities are given.

Approach Four is complementing a register with standard surveys, which was first introduced in the Netherlands. It is built on a population register that provides the basis for all social surveys. The full set of social surveys is then integrated into the population register to maximise the information available across a wide range of topics. Approach five is full register-based census, which has been pioneered in the Northern European countries but has spread to now include Austria; these countries are now turning to their administrative registers to deliver a full range of census outputs.

Regarding the suitability of the administrative data for census purposes, it is argued that while it may provide basic demographics, such as the population by age and sex at low levels of geography, it is not well-suited to providing the richness of variables in a full traditional census. The alternative is to create a population spine by either taking a single administrative source or a linkage of several sources at the level of the individual. If several sources are linked this may add to the richness of variables although the initial target may still not be much beyond age and sex.

Key words: population census, administrative data, population registers, coverage errors, population estimation.

 

 

N. H. Kutova,

Senior Lecturer of Department on Economics,

Organization and Management of Enterprises,

Kryvyi Rih National University

Methodological Approaches to Classifying Factors Influencing Labor Stimulation Procedures

The mechanism for workforce stimulation functions under the influence of economic, organizational, social and psychological conditions that encourage employees to work. The impact of this mechanism on the workforce behavior depends on many factors. As there has been no clear interpretation of the above factors, there is a need for their systematization and evaluation of the strength of their influence on work incentives, to form an objective idea about the currently existing work incentives and develop measures to strengthen the impact of incentives and weaken the impact of disincentives on reproduction of the workforce.

The aim of the study is to improve the methodological approach to classifying the factors influencing the work incentives by analyzing the occurrence of various categories of the influencing factors, with identifying the factors with critical influence.

Theoretical and methodological approaches to classifying the factors influencing the work incentives are analyzed. A method is proposed by which the factors are classified by content, phase in the workforce reproduction, way of exposure, nature of impact, scope of impact, consequences (results) of impact, direction of impact, area of impact, degree of impact. A method for workforce stimulation is proposed, based on simultaneous application of the components of workforce renumeration, specified by the author: renumeration (stimulation) for nominal participation in productive work, renumeration (stimulation) for creativity, renumeration (stimulation) for the formal status in the enterprise, renumeration (stimulation) for the contribution in the production output, including for entrepreneurial skills.

Key words: stimulation of work, factors of influence on the stimulation system, classification of factors, effective motivation, factors by elements.

 

 

V. P. Bondar,

DSc of Economics, Professor,

Managing Partner,

International Auditor Company “HLB Ukraine” Ltd

Internal Control over the Quality of Audit

Quality of audit services has a high importance in audit practices, as many management decisions, taken by potential investors, creditors or company managers, are largely dependent upon auditor judgment. The purpose of the study is to analyze the problems faced in constructing the system for quality control in audit and formulate recommendations on creating the company standard for quality of audit services.

Requirements for quality control in audit companies, purposes of the company standard on audit, functional categories of professionals in an audit company, authorities and duties of the auditor company director, the chief auditor and line auditors are outlined; responsibility sharing between director and line personnel of an audit company is grounded; the aspects specific to quality control inside an auditor company are given. A self-report inventory of the quality of a finished audit, to be filled by the chief auditor, is proposed to improve the internal company control system.

It is shown that because auditors plan and conduct auditor procedures in order to reduce the auditor risks and increase the user confidence in the credibility of financial reporting, the system of company control over the quality of financial reporting audit has to be established in each audit company, to ensure the full compliance of audits with norms and standards regulating the audit.

Key words: audit company, quality of audit services, internal control, organization of work, company standard.

 

 

V. V. Kozlov,

PhD (Engineering),

Associate Professor of Information Systems

and Technologies Department;

 T. V. Tomashevska,

 PhD (Engineering),

Associate Professor of Information Systems

and Technologies Department;

A. Yu. Pashkovska,

Post-graduate Student;

National Academy of Statistics, Accounting and Audit

"Social Informatics" within the System of Economic Education

Because transition from industrial to information society is a dominant tendency of the contemporary civilization, the great many explicitly practical questions arise: What are the new opportunities for humans in the information society? What change should one expect in the conditions of work, everyday life and recreation? What new problems will be faced by a human in the highly computerized information environment? What competencies and skills should he/she have, to cope effectively with the new problems or to mitigate their negative effects for his/her life? Their answers cannot be easily found in spite of the increasing scopes of publications in scientific literature or mass media. This emphasizes the social need in systematized studies of problems specific to information society, with disseminating their results via the education system.

The article aims at highlighting the social informatics as an interdisciplinary field of studies, with the specific object, subject and methodology.

The problem of cohered development (co-evolution) of the society and the process of its global informatization is the fundamental one for social informatics. Social informatics is a vivid example of a new interdisciplinary field rising at the border of many natural and humanitarian fields under the impact of integrative factors; its rise is caused by the social need for creating the scientific framework for studying the newly-born postindustrial civilization, the information society. Because many problems of social informatics as a science about social information communications pertain to humanitarian fields, it gives grounds for referring this scientific field as an interdisciplinary one. An important methodological issue is argumentation in favor of classifying social informatics as a separate scientific discipline rather than considering it as a mere set of methods or tools for social studies. The key argument is that social informatics does have the object, the subject and the methodological tools of studies, although the latter is yet to be elaborated. An important feature the social informatics methodology is use of various types of analytical approaches (information-based, system-based, co-evolutionary and social approaches) to its problems. The subject area of social informatics covers the four main fields: information resources of the society, information capacities of the society, information society, a human in information society. The authors’ discourse aims to prove the critical importance of the discipline “social informatics” in the education system.

Key words: social informatics, co-evolution, global informatization of society, information society, information capacities, information resources.

 

 

M. V. Shchuryk,

DSc in Economics, Professor,

Ivano-Frankіvsk University of Law

 named after King Danylo Halytskyi

Optimization of Landowning and Land Use: Contradictions and Solutions

Organization of landowning and land use in the agrarian sector of the Carpathian macroregion (Western Ukraine) is studied in the context of agrarian and land reforms. Critical assessment of the principles of privatizing and sharing the agricultural lands of the former collective and state agricultural farms is given. It is argued that ill-conceived transformation measures launched at the beginning of market economic reforms led to excessive fragmentation of lands, handing over land plots to ineffective owners and users, thus preventing from rise and development of small and medium agricultural enterprises. It is emphasized that the contradictions that the agrarian sector has to face when operating on the existing principles of landowning and land use cannot be overcome. Telling arguments are given to prove that the existing structure of owners and user of agricultural lands in the Carpathian macroregion is incapable to ensure high performance in terms of land use and preservation, improvement and protection of land plots and finding right solutions for ecological and social problems. It is argued that the largest flaw that triggered destructive tendencies in organization of the existing land farms is excessive and populist socialization instead of creating agricultural farms on rational and professional grounds, in conformity with market-based land relations. The flaw originates from mistakes and contradictions between economic and social components of land reform.

Because the resources of land owners and users in the Carpathian macroregion, required for rational land use, have largely been at the end, the author proposes to organize inventory, ecological audit and disclosure of the owners’ nomenclature. Their results should lay the basis for a program (guidelines) for optimization of landowning and land use. This document must involve the second redistribution of agricultural lands. This, however, must not apply for the economic entities that have been capable to organize effective land farms, sustain high productivity of land plots and cope with social problems in the rural area. A set of criteria is proposed to measure optimization of landowning and land use, which have been applied in EU countries for a long time. Emphasis is made on the need to introduce territorial differentiation of landowning and land use and abandon general and average measures that are used now by the State Statistics Service of Ukraine for comparisons of the performance by region, oblast, district, agricultural farm etc. Also, land farm optimization should cover agricultural lands of the still unshared part of the land fund. The need to transfer these agricultural lands to local public administration bodies, with transference of the ownership and management functions, is substantiated. Also, the proposition to optimize agricultural lands by abandoning monoculture practices and putting limitations on the size of land plots managed by agricultural holdings is made.

Key words: landowning, land use, agro-industrial complex, privatization, land reform, agrarian reform, redistribution of land fund.

 

 

О. О. Vasyechko,

DSc (Economics),

Universite Paris 1 Pantheon-Sorbonne

The Experience of the French National Statistical System

The organization of the French statistical system is analyzed. It is highlighted that the high performance of the French statistical system results mainly from the awareness by French public and government of its significance in the governance of social, economic and political processes. In view of this awareness, the budget of INSEE (the French analogue of the State Statistics Service of Ukraine) has been stably high and the institutional structure remained stable, in spite of the traditional critiques on the address of statistics office and the latest economic crisis, calling for significant saving of budgetary funds.

A notable tendency in the European statistics of the last decade has been focus on development of regional statistics which enables for identifying, in a timely manner, the problems of specific regions (such as unemployment, low concentration of business enterprises in a region, problems of depressive territories, negative demographic trends and many others), invisible the aggregated level of statistical information, and helps local authorities in finding their solutions.

Statistical science and education have had the significant role in the French statistics system, and the financing of both lays firm ground for the advancement of the official statistics and the statistics system as a whole.

Considering the need to continue with building up the national statistics system of Ukraine, a broader assessment of its current performance is given, with outlining the internal and external factors behind its successful reforming in the past years.

1. Large contribution made by heavy and enthusiastic effort of practical statisticians: their scientific studies, first and foremost in sectoral statistics, as well as in the general theory and methodology of statistics. The great role has been played by the higher statistical education system in Ukraine, training of highly skilled research personnel, up-grading of the qualification of personnel engaged in the official statistical, and other categories of higher education in statistics.

2. The Ukrainian statistics could rather easily adopt the international standards due to international cooperation and international technical assistance, playing the key role from point of dissemination of competencies and best practices, and the financial support.

The above factors could have great effects in spite of strict budgetary constraints in the Ukrainian statistics system. This allows for classifying the Ukrainian statistics system as one of the best statistics systems in the post-soviet countries, considering the capacities for problem solution. Yet, as the official statistics system reflects the society’s profile, when the statistics system is underdeveloped, it is a consequence of poorly developed public democratic institutions. The state, therefore, has to play the outstanding role in building up the national statistics system.

Key words: official statistics, the national statistics system, the European Statistics System, statistical information, statistical infrastructure.

 

 

E. V. Chekotovskyi,

PhD (Economics), Associate Professor;

M. Yu. Potapova,

PhD (Economics), Associate Professor,

Associate Professor of Statistics Department,

National Academy of Statistics, Accounting and Audit

Issues of Statistical Science in Works of O. O. Rusov: Commemorating the 100th Anniversary since His Death

The contribution of O. O. Rusov, a prominent Ukrainian statistician of zemstvo (elective district council in pre-revolutionary Russia), in statistical science and practice is studied. Statistics of zemstvo, established in Russia in the second half of 19 century, made large contribution in theory and practice of organization and performance of statistical surveys and elaboration of methods for statistical data processing.

To perform their functions, zemstvo needed statistical information for evaluation of real estate like lands, houses, trade and factory buildings, for taxation purposes. In view of this, institutions of zemstvo, once established, immediately launched statistical surveys focused on taxation purposes of the zemstvo, evaluation of land and property. Statistics of zemstvo, therefore, had the evaluative function.

Olexandr Olexandrovych Rusov (1847–1915), with his outstanding role in development of statistical studies at zemstvo level, was rightfully recognized as “father of Ukrainian zemstvo statistics”. Over longer than 30 years of work in the zemstvo statistics field, he made extremely important contribution in its development.

О. Rusov was born in the family of a military medic in the city of Kyiv. After graduation of Kyiv University, he was working as a teacher of Latin, Greek and Russian languages, was engaged in ethnography, folklore studies and printing & publishing till 1874. He began working in statistics field as a statistician of zemstvo at the statistical department of zemstvo administration in Chernihiv huberniya (province), established in 1876. The work of the department at first was aimed at elaboration of programs for survey of various economic sectors in Chernihiv province (agriculture, industry, trade etc.). In 1876, O. Rusov, jointly with the colleagues from the statistical department, conducted a statistical study of villages and volost (rural areas incorporating several villages) of Chernihiv povit (district) on the basis of elaborated programs. In 1879, the zemstvo administration of the Nizhyn povit (Chernihiv province) asked him to make a statistical and economic description of the povit and publish it. The period from the middle of 1882 till the middle of 1889 O. Rusov spent in Kherson province, taking active part in its statistical study. O. Rusov, who had rich practical experiences of statistical studies at zemstvo level, gave invaluable professional advices to statisticians from Kherson province. It should be remembered that O. Rusov was regularly delivering scientific reports at statistical congresses, meeting etc. devoted to elaboration and improvement of programs for statistical studies at zemstvo level. According to O. Rusov, establishment of democratic principles in statistical services is a foremost condition for their effective work. Thanks to O. Rusov’s effort, regular statistical studies were established in Kherson province. Beginning with 1908 until his death in 1915, O. Rusov was working as a lecturer in statistics in Kyiv Institute of Commerce (now Kyiv Vadym Hetman National Economic University). In 1909, he organized a statistical cabinet and handed over his own library to it. He was delivering lectures and practical lessons in disciplines such as theory of statistics, demographic statistics, history of statistics, railway statistics, insurance statistics, statistics of zemstvo economy, statistics at zemstvo level etc. His works helped increase the quality of teaching of statistical disciplines and had large scientific importance, which is proved by references (citations) to his works by great numbers of researchers in statistics.

Key words: O. Rusov, zemstvo statistics, statistical department, statistical and economic description, statistical studies at zemstvo level.